In the dynamic and evolving political landscape of South Africa, the emergence of the Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF) marks a central chapter in the nation’s post-apartheid narrative. This article delves into the origins, ideology, leadership, and impact of the EFF, a party that has swiftly grown from its inception to become a significant force in South African politics.

    By examining the party’s foundation, policy positions, and electoral performance, alongside the controversies it has stirred, we gain insight into its role and influence in shaping the discussion and direction of South Africa’s future.

    Economic Freedom Fighters: Origin and Founding

    The EFF was founded by Julius Malema, the former president of the African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL), in July 2013 after Malema’s expulsion from the ANC. His political ousting arose from deep clashes over political direction and controversies linked to his conduct. The party’s formation represented a significant shift in South African politics, tapping into growing frustrations among the youth and underprivileged citizens regarding persistent economic inequality and slow land reform.

    Ideology and Policy Positions

    • Philosophy: The EFF describes itself as a radical, left-wing, anti-capitalist, and anti-imperialist movement inspired by Marxist-Leninist and Pan-Africanist beliefs.
    • Expropriation of Land Without Compensation: A cornerstone of their platform is the nationalisation of land for redistribution without compensation to the majority black population, addressing historical injustices rooted in dispossession during colonialism and apartheid.
    • Nationalisation of Key Industries: The EFF strongly advocates for state control over strategic economic sectors, namely mines, banks, and other major industries. The purpose here is to ensure wealth and resource benefits flow to the masses rather than private interests.
    • Economic Emancipation: The party’s core message centres on “economic freedom in our lifetime,” demanding equitable wealth distribution and opportunities for black South Africans.
    • Free Education and Healthcare: The EFF believes in publicly funded access to education (especially tertiary) and quality healthcare services for all South Africans.
    • Anti-Corruption: Public office bearers and state entities are to strictly adhere to transparency and accountability rules. The EFF positions itself as a staunch crusader against public sector corruption.

    Leadership and Structure

    Julius Malema serves as the EFF’s Commander-in-Chief (CIC) and president. He wields charismatic power, and his fiery, populist speech resonates with a substantial sector of the electorate.

    Floyd Shivambu functions as the party’s Deputy President.

    Central Command Team (CCT): This forms the highest decision-making body within the EFF and guides the party’s day-to-day operations.

    Provincial/Local Structures: The EFF maintains a broad national presence with active branches across South Africa’s nine provinces.

    Electoral Performance

    Since its inception, the EFF has witnessed substantial and rapid growth in voter support:

    • 2014 Parliament Elections: Earned 6.35% of the national vote, winning 25 parliamentary seats.
    • 2016 Municipal Elections: Captured 8.19% of the national vote.
    • 2019 Parliament Elections: Received 10.80% of the national vote, increasing their representation to 44 parliamentary seats.
    • 2021 Municipal Elections: Secured 10.42% of the vote nationally.


    • Disruptive Parliamentary Behaviour: The EFF has become infamous for its confrontational tactics in parliament, frequently heckling and obstructing legislative proceedings as a protest tactic. Supporters see this as holding power to account, while their detractors criticise it as unproductive and harmful to democratic processes.
    • Provocative Language: EFF leaders, particularly Julius Malema, often use divisive and inflammatory language targeting other political figures, racial groups, and institutions. Some argue it is part of their radical politics, while critics warn it contributes to hate speech and societal fractures.

    Impact on South African Politics

    The EFF has undeniably altered the landscape of South African politics by:

    • Voice for the Disenchanted: Representing the interests of marginalized communities, they speak directly to their grievances.
    • Shifting Discourse: The EFF pushes topics like land reform and nationalization to the forefront of public debate.
    • Challenge to ANC Supremacy: They provide a growing, credible opposition to the historically dominant ANC.

    Related: EFF Manifesto Launch at Moses Mabhida.


    The Economic Freedom Fighters have emerged as a formidable force in South African politics, challenging the status quo and advocating for radical changes to address the deep-seated issues of inequality, land distribution, and economic empowerment. Through its controversial yet impactful strategies, the EFF has not only garnered significant electoral support but has also shifted the political discourse, compelling other parties to engage with the pressing issues it raises.

    As South Africa continues to navigate its complex socio-political landscape, the role and influence of the EFF will undoubtedly remain a subject of keen interest and debate, reflecting the ongoing struggle for justice, equality, and economic freedom in the post-apartheid era.